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LIV CULTURE

Photographs of Liv Villages in Kurzeme Region 1902-1927

The Livs are Finnish people who live the furthest West on the Baltic Sea. They used to inhabit a wide territory in the Vidzeme and Kurzeme regions of Latvia. Before the Second World War, the Livs remained only in twelve fishing villages along the Kurzeme seashore. These were: Lūžņa, Miķeļtornis, Lielirbe, Jaunciems, Sīkrags, Mazirbe, Košrags, Pitrags, Saunags, Vaide, Kolka and Melnsils. The villages were located in an approximately 60 km long and a few kilometers wide coastal zone, which stretched from the furthest northern point Kolka to the West.
The Western Livs called themselves rāndalist (the coast people) while the Eastern Livs called themselves kalāmīed (fishermen). The language of the Livs rāndakēļ (language of the coast people) consisted of Western and Eastern dialects. As a mother tongue, the Liv language now is spoken only by about ten Livs, while at the beginning of the 20th century the Liv language was spoken by a couple of thousand people. The Livs started to call themselves by the collective name līvli (Livs) during the First National Awakening in Latvia after the First World War.

EXPEDITIONS

Andreas Johan Sjögren
The Finnish linguist Andreas Johan Sjögren (1794-1855) began a new stage in research into Livs and the Liv language. Sjögren collected Liv language materials and determined the number of Eastern Livs and Western Livs living in Kurzeme in 1846 and 1852. Research into the Liv language was later continued by many other scholars, among them the Professors Emil Nestor Setälä and Lauri Kettunen. In addition to linguists, also ethnographers and folklorists were involved in researching Livs.

Axel Olai Heikel
In 1902, during an expedition covering the three regions of Latvia bordering the Baltic Sea, Axel Olai Heikel, the Curator of Ethnographic Department of the Finnish National Museum also visited the Livs. He researched the territory inhabited by the Livs in the northern coast of Kurzeme from Miķeļtornis (Pissen) through Mazirbe (Irben) up to Kolka (Domesnäs). Heikel also photographed Liv buildings and attire. At the same time he collected Liv materials for National Museum of  Finland Archives.

Emil Nestor Setälä, Eemil Arvi Saarimaa and Vilho Setälä
Emil Nestor Setälä, a Professor of Finnish Language and Literature at the Helsinki University (1893-1929) went on a second expedition to the Livs in 1912. Along with Setälä, also Eemil Arvi Saarimaa, Master of Philology, and Setälä’s son, Vilho, participated in the expedition. Researcher Saarimaa collected Liv folkloric materials. Vilho Setälä took many ethnographic photographs and portraits of Livs. He also inscribed the language into a parlograph.

Lauri Kettunen and Oskar Loorits
Lauri Kettunen, Professor of Finnish Languages around the Baltic Sea, Tartu University (1919-1925), made his first expedition to the Liv coast in 1920. Kettunen’s  travel companion was his student at that time Oskar Loorits, who, to a larger extent than any other person, has collected and published Liv folkloric materials, among them Liv folk songs. Loorits’ dissertation “Liv Folk Beliefs” (Liivji rahva usund) was published in 1926. While researching the Liv language, Lauri Kettunen photographed life in Liv villages in 1920, 1921, 1923 and 1925. In total, Kettunen visited the Liv coast eleven times. As a result of his research, a rich body of work was created, including a collection of examples of Liv language dialects and a Liv language dictionary.

Ferdinand Leinbock-Linnus
Ferdinand Leinbock-Linnus, Estonian ethnographer and Director of the Ethnographic Department of the Estonian Folk Museum, photographed bee-keeping in Liv villages in 1927. He has written of his research into Liv fishing and crayfish industry and participated in the creation of the first documentary film about the Livs.

1. Professor Emil Nestor Setälä and Eemil Arvi Saarimaa, M. A. Phil., in a boat on their way to Miķeļtornis. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
2. Viljams Krišjānis talking to Professor Emil Nestor Setälä in Miķeļtornis. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
3. Professor Emil Nestor Setälä’s expedition equipment being drawn by a horse to Lielirbe. Miķeļtornis –– Lielirbe. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
4. Ede Rozenfelde recounting magic incantations to Eemil Arvi Saarimaa. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
5. Professor Emil Nestor Setälä’s teller of tales Indriķis Kandiss in Jaunciems. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
7. “The train arrives singing.”
Professor Lauri Kettunen and the Estonian student, Oskar Loorits, in the narrow- gauge railcar on their way from Ventspils to Lūžņa. The narrow-gauge railway, built especially for the needs of the German armed forces, crossed the coastal villages up to Mazirbe. After the First World War the railway with its entire inventory was left for civilian use, serving as an important means of transport for passengers and freight. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
6. Listening to a phonograph in Lūžņa. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
8. “Language of the Coast People” tellers of tales Marija Leite and Didriķis Leitis. Lūžņa. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
9. Oskar Loorits, student of Professor Lauri Kettunen, and the teller of tales Marija Leite. Lūžņa. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 15.06.1920.
10. Katrīne Zēberga, teller of tales from Vaide, with her sons. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
11. In Miķeļtornis people also lived in underground bunkers left by the German Armed forces.
Only the roof, entry and windows of the bunker are visible. The bunkers were dug in the coastal sand dunes during the First World War. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 19.06.1920.

NATURE, INHABITANTS AND BUILDINGS

The sea, low sand beaches, pale-yellow sand-dunes rising to the edge of a forest, amon them marshy areas and small sandy fields –– this is the landscape of the Liv villages of Kurzeme.
Liv villages were clusters of small individual farmsteads. Erected among the coastal sand dunes, and stakes for hanging nets pointed to the existence of a village.

As late as the beginning of the 20th century, archaic features characteristic of Latvian and Lithuanian construction could be found in the old Liv buildings. One of these was the dūmnams –– the smokehouse –– built of logs, a building that served as a special kitchen. In the middle of the floor was an open hearth and, from a beam located lengthwise above the hearth, hung a kettle. In the smokehouse various household tasks were done –– brewing of beer, washing of clothes, butchering of farm animals, preparation of meals, as well as eating of meals in the summer. On stakes in the house, plaice, Baltic herring and sprats were dried. A smokehouse in the form of a pavarda kambaris –– hearth chamber –– also was retained in the old dwellings of Livs, which consisted of a living room and an antechamber. In this antechamber there were no windows. There was an earthen floor, an open hearth and beams for hanging kettles. This hearth chamber also fulfilled the function of an entryway. The stove of the adjacent room was heated from the antechamber. On occasion, on the other side of antechamber a second common room was built. More living space was acquired also by extending the dwelling through the addition of another room, a kitchen or a chamber. As a result, the existing hearth chamber became the entryway on the other side of the house.

The homestead buildings were located around the main house. The granary was divided into two sections, the two granaries being located side-by-side under a common roof so forming one specialized building. Dual-entry doors were located in the long wall of the building. A barn also included a storage area for hay and an attached lean-to, which was also utilized as a storage place for sleighs, carts or wagons. The sauna was located near the well, while the threshing barn was outside the yard. The threshing barn not only included a threshing-floor but also served as a storage barn for hay. The threshing floor was located at the end of the building.

The old Liv buildings had a two-slope saddle roof. Covered with wood shingles, the heavy roof had an overhang supported by hooks and was held up by massive roof  beams. The roof construction of the Liv buildings conforms with Latvian and Eastern European traditional construction. The buildings generally were erected on massive foundation logs directly on the earth.

Roofed with wood shingles, the net huts of fishermen were located near the seashore. In them were placed the nets after they had dried out on stakes. These stakes, which were installed near the mooring place for the boats, were made of supporting wood poles, set up in rows in the sand parallel to the shore.

12. View from the Miķeļtornis lighthouse. The Miķeļtornis mooring place for boats. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.    
13. Coastal seascape. Nabeļi. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
14. Coastal seascape. Nabeļi. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
15. ”Baltais kalns” (White Hill) – shifting sand dune. Lielirbe. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
16. Viga (a marshy place among dunes). Lielirbe. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
17. The ancient sea bed. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1921.
18. Kolka coast. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
19. Mooring place for boats at Lielirbe. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
20. Nets on stakes. Kolka. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
21. Smokehut with a wash-basin by the wall. At the door, Andrejs Veinbergs. Lūžņa. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
22. A well and a house. Melnsils. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
23. Viga house consisting of a room and an antechamber in Miķeļtornis. Massive beams support a wood shingle roof. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
24. Draudziņš homestead in Lūžņa. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
25. A dwelling in Miķeļtornis. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
26. An abandoned homestead comprised of a granary, a common room, an antechamber and a stable. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
27. A Liv homestead in Jaunciems. Photo by: Axel Olai Heikel, 1902.
28. A dwelling. Kolka. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
29. Baķis homestead. Melnsils. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
30. Granary. Pitrags. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
31. Granary. Košrags. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
32. Granary. Sīkrags. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
33. A smokehut made from an abandoned boat. Mazirbe. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
34. A smokehut made from an abandoned boat. Kolka. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
35. Princis homestead sauna. Miķeļtornis. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
36. Princis homestead threshing barn. Miķeļtornis. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
37. Potato cellar. Pitrags. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
38. Net hut. Lūžņa. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
39. Net hut. Miķeļtornis. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
40. Windmill. Pitrags. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
41. Net hut. Jaunciems. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
42. Lūžņa village. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
43. Sīkraga village. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.

FISHING

On the Kurzeme coast, Baltic herring, sprats, plaice and cod were fished. Baltic herring and sprats were fished with nets and creels –– fish-baskets –– in early spring and autumn. Plaice were caught with seine-nets in the summer. The seine-net had a large and a small wing. At the end of the wings were attached wood poles, to which were fastened long tow ropes. A stone, serving as a sinker, was fastened to the back of the wing. Bugbears, objects to scare the fish, were attached to the ropes to make the plaice move between the towropes. After being herded into the low coastal waters, the plaice were lifted out with a gaff. Cod were primarily caught with fishing hooks, while spawning cod were caught with nets.The plaice were cleaned and salted. After being left in the saltwater for several days, they were taken out and pinned on smoking skewers. They were then hung in a smokehut made from old boats or, in earlier times – in a smokehouse. Under the long smoking skewers a slow-burning fire was lit and, in its warmth and smoke, the plaice were dried and readied for eating and selling.

44. Fishermen coming ashore. Miķeļtornis. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
45. Dividing the catch at Miķeļtornis seashore. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
46. Cleaning plaice at Miķeļtornis seashore. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
47. Brants Baumanis cleaning plaice in Kolka. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
48. Salting of cleaned plaice. Sīkrags. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
49. The plaice to be smoked are pinned on smoking skewers. In the background the smokehut. Miķeļtornis. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
50. Pēteris Armands and Lība Krinkele pinning the plaice to be smoked on smoking skewers. Lielirbe. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
51. Didriķis Dambergs in his fisherman’s outfit, including an apron. Lielirbe. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
52. Smoking ovens for Baltic herring in Lūžņa. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1923.
53. Fishing equipment. A gaff and a harpoon. A fishing rod with two hooks and a spoon- bait for catching cod. Miķeļtornis. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
54. Fricis Kleinbergs in his fisherman’s outfit. Mazirbe. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
55. A fishing boat drying out its sails on the Miķeļtornis seashore. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
56. Boats. Miķeļtornis. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
57. Carrying nets from the boat to the shore. Lūžņa. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
58. Fishing boats being pulled up the sandy shore to the mooring place in Kolka during high tide. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
59. Didriķis Dambergs without the apron. Lielirbe. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
60. Drying nets on the Lūžņa seashore. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
61. rying towropes. Miķeļtornis. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.

BEEKEEPING

As late as the beginning of the 20th century, beekeeping was an important activity for the Livs. In older times honey was collected from bee trees where bee swarmed to make their hives. These bee trees were trees with natural hollows or especially hollowed out cavities. The entrances to the beehives were closed off in the winter. In the middle of the 19th century, constructed beehives located near Liv homesteads replaced the natural bee trees.

62. A bee tree with two swarms closed off for the winter. Photo by: Ferdinand Leinbock- Linnus, 1927.
63. Removing honey from a prone beehive. Photo by: Ferdinand Leinbock-Linnus, 1927.
64. A standing hive during swarming. Lielirbe. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
65. Collecting honey. Lielirbe. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
66. Bee barn. Vaide. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
67. Apiary. Sīkrags. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
68. Bee hives in Vaide. Photo by: Ferdinand Leinbock-Linnus, 1927.
69. Bee hives in the orchard of the Buki homestead. Lielirbe. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1923.

WORK

Beside fishing and keeping livestock, an important source of income was agriculture. Having acquired land, Livs became small-scale farmers after the First World War. In the sandy fields they grew barley, oats, summer rye and potatoes. Potatoes grew well in the fields fertilised with brown algae and sea sludge.

After being cut down with a scythe, the grain crops were tied into sheaves. The dried off sheaves were taken to the threshing barn for further drying on the beams. Afterwards the dried sheaves were spread on the floor. The grain was threshed with flails or two or three horses, led in a circle on the spread out grain. The summer crops were threshed by foot. After the threshing, the remaining chaff was gathered with pitchforks. The grain mixed with chaff was poured into a pile in front of the open door of the barn to be winnowed. Air currents separated the grain from the chaff.

Coastal pines were used in the building of boats. The fishing boats were equipped with a mast that could be raised and lowered, with a sail and a foresail, reminiscent of the boats used in the Estonian coastal islands.

70. The elder Dambergs in the threshing barn. The summer crops were threshed on the barn floor. In threshing, the grain was separated from the sheaves spread out on the floor. Lielirbe. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1921.
71. Didriķis Belte beside a wooden plow. Miķeļtornis. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
72. Klāvs Kallmans harnessing a horse at the Tille homestead. Sīkrags. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
73. Augusts Boters astride his horse. A horse collar is under the harness. Miķeļtornis. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
74. A two-horse cart. Lielirbe. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
75. Threshing barn tools. Chaff was separated from the threshed grain by throwing, shaking and winnowing. This was done with wooden rakes and forks and special shovels with upturned sides. Lielirbe. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
76. The Mazbelte family (Didriķis Leitis with his family), planting potatoes. Lūžņa. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
77. A single horse cart. A central, movable block above the axle connecting the front wheels permits the cart to be turned to each side. Lielirbe. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
78. Jānis Krišjānis tarring cartwheels in the Draudziņš homestead. Lūžņa. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
79. Building a boat. Kolka. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
80. Mending a sail in Kolka. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
81. Mending nets in Kolka. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
82. Twining rope in Kolka. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
83. Aleksis Olmanis, Līna Šulca and Jānis Dambis demonstrate how to make a tow rope. The man on the right hands three separate ropes to a woman who weaves them into tow rope. The man in the middle oversees the weaving of the tow rope. Miķeļtornis –– Lielirbe. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
84. Jānis Bertholds demonstrates how to soften leather with tongs. The tongs have blade edge, a handle and a leather loop attached at the bottom. Jānis Bertholds pulls the leather with his left hand and holds the tool by its handle with his right hand, while pulling the leather loop with his right foot. The blade edge, moving downward, softens the leather. Vaide. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
Drawing: The tongs. Toivo Vuorela, Suomalainen kansankulttuuri, 1974.

DRESS AND MATERIALS

Unique historical features of women’s folk costumes.

According to information dating back to the 18th century, women wore a large woollen shawl that was pinned on the breast with a silver brooch called a sakta. These woollen shawls were characteristic of the Baltic countries and Finland, and their origin is rooted in ancient history. When going outside the house, the head and shoulders were covered with this woollen shawl. At the end of the 19th century, a white woollen shawl (kõrtan) and a narrow-striped skirt (trīplimi gūngaseŗk) constituted the women’s folk costume. The stripes of the skirt were red and black. The bottom rim of the skirt was decorated with sewed on, coloured ribbons. Besides the narrow striped skirt, also black skirts with 3 to 4 red stripes around the bottom rim were worn.

Distinguishing apparel for married women was a mouth scarf (mundangs) and a headdress made up of three parts (aube). The mundang was a long, narrow, white scarf. It totally covered the chin and cheeks and was tied at the back of the head. As early as the 17th century, information has been found concerning the wearing of such a scarf. The three-part headdress was sewn from three pieces of cloth. For decoration, small roses fashioned of cloth and glass beads were sewn on the back of the headdress.

As footwear, men and women wore moccasin-type shoes made from a single piece of leather called pastalas, and bast shoes –– vīzes  — made diagonally woven osier bark. The Swedes living in the northwest islands wore the same type of  pastalas. Latvians, Lithuanians, Estonians and White Russians wore vīzes  prepared by the same technique.

85. A Liv couple photographed at the end of the 19th century.
The woman is wearing the narrow-striped skirt, a white woollen shawl, a three-part headdress and vīzes on her feet. The man’s outfit is in ancient style of dress, while the scarf is modern.
86-87. Liv bride (frontview and backview). Kolka.
On her head the bride has a wreath of wild flowers and a bride’s crown. Many silk ribbons hang down from the crown. Around her forehead the bride wears a red ribbon and from the back of her head hang two braids that cover her ears. Around the bride’s shoulders is a short cape decorated with heart-shapes around its rim and ruffled neckline. The dress also includes a white apron and a skirt with a yellow, blue or red ribbons at its rim. The bride is wearing white gloves and stockings, and, on her feet, shoes with low heels. On her finger is a betrothal ring. Photo by: Axel Olai Heikel, 1902.
88-89. A woman in a new wives’ outfit (frontview and sideview). Lielirbe.
After the wedding ceremony, the crown was taken off. The head was covered with the three-part headdress. The chin and cheeks were hidden with the mundangs  –– the mouth scarf. A second scarf was tied across the forehead in two knots. The new wives outfit included a short jacket, a large woollen shawl around her shoulders, a pleated skirt, a white apron, white socks and pastalas on her feet. Photo by: Axel Olai Heikel, 1902
Drawing: L. bride´s crown, R. woman´s bonnet made of three pieces of cloth. A.O. Heikel, Die Volkstrachten in den Ostseeprovinzen und in den Setukesien 1909.
90. Liv man with an embroidered shirtfront. Lūžņa. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
91. Knitted stockings. Lielirbe. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
92. Home-woven blankets. Mazirbe. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.

PHOTOGRAPHS OF PEOPLE

The linguistic and ethnographic researchers who came from Finland at the beginning of the 20th century met many old inhabitants in the Liv coastal villages.

MIĶEĻTORNIS
93. Jānis Belte. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
94. Princis’ daughter Līna Valta with her daughter. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
95. Nēze Apse. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
96. Didriķis Belte. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
97. Pēteris Niklāvs. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
98. Belte family: Didriķis, Jānis, Līna, Elīza, Milda, Alfrēds, Eduards and Oto. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
99. Two old women and a child. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
100. Two men and a girl. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.

LŪŽŅA
101. Uldriķis Krišjānis. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.

PITRAGS
102. Kurgats homestead household. In the background, the ruins of the Baptist Church. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
103. A Liv teller of tales Marija Šaltjāre. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.

SAUNAGS
104. Anna Retenberga. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.

JAUNCIEMS
105. Koku family household. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.

MELNSILS
106. Andrejs Rozenfelds. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
107. Didriķis Zandmanis. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
108. Husband and wife. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.

KOLKA
109. Andrejs Hausmanis. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
110. Viktorija Adamkoviča. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
111. Nikolajs and Līze Petoki. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
112. Andrejs Štālerstalers. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
113. Līze Dišlere and Ģede Hausmane. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
114. Štālers family. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
115. 110 year old Andrejs Rozenfelds. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
116. Old fishermen and Oskar Loorits. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.

SĪKRAGS
117. Livs in holiday dress. The musician is Latvian. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
118. Pēteris and Marija Anzenavi. On the left, Grieta Sproģe with her two sons. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
119. Breinkopfs with his wife. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
120. Marija Jakadēla and her daughter Elza Krona. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
121. Ķērsta Anzenava and Trīne Rumpenberga. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
122. Kersti Volganska, her son, daughter and grandson. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
123. Marija Anbanga. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
124. Captain Breinkopfs with his daughter-in-law and grandchildren. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1921.
125. Two women. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
126. Old Nika. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1923.

VAIDE
127. Klāvs Dišlers and family: Trīna Dišlere, Līze, Kārlis Zariņš, Jūle and Nika Leimanis, Mīle, Jānis Bertholds, Elza and Lēna, Kārlis Dišlers, Zelma, Milda Zariņa. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
128. Jānis Bertholds with 9 year old grandson Džems Bertholds. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
129. Kristīne Demberga with a yoke, carrying water. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
130. Elza and Lēna Dišlere. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
131. Children. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
132. Žonaks household. The white-haired man in the back row is Oskar Loorits. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.
133. A funeral. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.

LIELIRBE
134. Trīna Jeije (Geige). Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
135. Pēteris Didriksons and Didriķis Dambergs. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
136. Jānis Rozenfelds and family. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
137. Ādamsons’ family: Ansis Ādamsons, Lība Ādamsone, Fricis Grīnfelds, Trīna Grīnfelde (née Ādamsone), Anna Ādamsone, Mīle Ādamsone, Mīle Grīnfelde, Alfreds Grīnfelds, Lilija Zandberga, Taldi Zandberga, Līna Zandberga, Ella Ādamsone, Andrejs Ādamsons. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.
138. Ādamsons family from Lielirbe. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1920.

MAZIRBE
139. Andrejs, Kristīne and Arturs Ermanbriki. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.

KOŠRAGS
140. Augusts Dišlers. Photo by: Vilho Setälä, 1912.

AWAKENING OF LIV NATIONALISM AND CONTACTS WITH FINNS

141. Members of the Liv Society (founded in 1923).
Lauri Kettunen and Oskar Loorits encouraged Liv contacts with related ethnic groups. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1923.
142. Livs at a choir practice in Sīkrags. Liv choir activity started in the spring of 1921. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1923.
143. Finns and Livs at the Sīkraga railway station in the summer of 1923.
From the left: Lauri Kettunen’s daughter Marjo, Alfreds Breinkopfs, Kettunen’s maid servant from Finland, Mrs. Breinkopfs, Oskars Cerbahs, Anna Tille, Lauri Kettunen’s daughter Kaiju. Back row: Hilja Kettunen. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1923.
144. Liv, Latvian and Finnish young people in Sīkrags. Photo by: Lauri Kettunen, 1923. 


Organiser of the Exhibition: National Board of Antiquities. Finland
Handwriting: Marja-Leena Kaasalainen
Layout/Design: Maikku Soveri
Translation/Latvian: Valts Ernštreits/Liv: Valts Ernštreits/English: Margita Gailīte
Consultant/Historian: Valda Šuvcāne


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